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Jan 10, 2018 in Psychology

Child Development on Speech and Language Development

In child development, language and speech are considered important communication skills. Language and speech develop in the initial stages of a child's development with every stage possessing a different milestone. Speech and language skills are acquired in the beginning 3 years since the period involves rigorous brain development and maturation. Speech and language skills are built up in a surrounding that has numerous sounds and visions, as well as constant experience with individuals involved in intensive communication. Therefore, speech and language from other people has an influence on the development of these skills in children.

Certain critical periods are considered the most ideal moments for the development of these skills among children since the brain is capable of absorbing language and its concepts. This implies that failure of exposing children to language during the critical periods creates difficulties for the children involved in learning certain languages. Speech and language learning commences while the infants are in the womb as they hear and react to recognizable voices. The best learning period is considered to be around 2-5 years among all infants (Kim, 2011).

Hence, the period may be considered as the critical period for speech and language development. Certain milestones within speech and language assist in the determination of whether the expected development is being realized. The milestones comprise of skills in child development for instance babbling and mentioning of certain words.

During development, children are required to master the milestone for the different developmental stages prior to advancement to the next milestone. A child commences cooing at about 2 months of the developmental phase and babbling follows at around 6 months. A child communicates through the jargon within the first year and at 15-18 months; a normal child is capable of comprehending events although the child is unable to express events in words. In some cases, children may fall behind in speech and language development and communication is often considered as delayed (NIDCD, 2010).

Delayed refers to cases in which the child carries on without deficiencies in the right order although they are slower in the learning process compared to other children. However, children may have disorders in case the language or speech turns out unusual from that of other children (Cantwell & Baker, 1987). In child development, language or speech disorder is characterized by difficultly in comprehension.

Similarly, a disorder may be identified if children evade communicating with people or worry about their speech or language. The Reading or talking to a toddler may have considerable impact on the language and speech development. It assists the child in understanding the concepts of speech and language thus improving their probability of advancing their skills (NIDCD, 2010).

In speech development, speech defects emanate from malformation of various speech organs although they may be attributable to emotional disturbances (Nisha, 2006). The commonest speech defects comprise of lisping, stuttering, stammering, slurring and cluttering. The speech defects are associated with delayed speech development, defective speech organs, poor coordination of speech muscles and defective jaws or teeth.

Language and speech development is influenced by an assortment of factors that may generate direct or indirect effects. Language and speech development is influenced negatively by ill-health in the preliminary stages of child development. Illness impairs language development, delays speech organ development and affects individual communication with others (Nisha, 2006).

Intelligence is a central element in language development with some milestones for instance babbling being considered predictors of a toddler's intelligence levels. In child development, children who demonstrate high intelligence are considered to be linguistically competent. The linguistics competence is displayed through better vocabulary, correct sentence formations and the sentence length of the communicated content (Nisha, 2006).

Socio-economic elements of the immediate family influence language development with children from better families developing speech earlier compared to children from poor families. Poor children experience listening elaborative language, elevated articulation errors, as well as under or overstimulation (Nisha, 2006). The relationship between these elements becomes elaborate with age.

Sex is an influencing factor on speech development with male children learning faster than female children. However, girls utter longer sentences compared to boys. Boys experience minimum comprehension vocabulary and commit higher grammatical errors than the female counterparts (Nisha, 2006). In addition, boys have relatively lower accuracy in pronunciation.

Family relations are influential in the facilitation of language development, in children. Mother-child relations are effective in ensuring faster language development. Consequently, children from child institutions learn languages much slower and have deprived language development (Nisha, 2006). This is because institutions provide little adult contact or personal relationships. The learning process for twins or triplets is slower than the learning process for a single child. Learning two languages for children in bilingual homes may affect language development since it becomes challenging at the initial stages of language development.

Conclusion

Speech and language development are important elements in child development since provide a child with the means of communication or expression. Speech and language development transpire within the initial stages of the infant development as the brain develops and matures. In child development, several milestones are utilized in the determination of the level of language or speech development. Milestones are regarded as skills that comprise of babbling and other related sounds. Acquisition of the language and speech skills may occur in later stages of a child's development thus causing a delayed language or speech acquisition. However, speech defects may occur among developing children due to various factors for instance malformation of speech organs. Various elements can influence language and speech development in young ones thus improving or undermining the necessary developments.

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