Use Case Modeling
A use case can be defined as a set of procedures or methodologies that is used when analyzing a system for the purposes of organizing, clarifying, or identifying certain system requirements. This research paper will attempt to outline a use case, which illustrates the main events that take place whenever a bank customer visits an ATM. The paper will outline both the actual and the other alternative courses that a customer may be involved in. The major events that the paper will outline include ATM money or cash withdrawals, depositing cash into an account using the ATM, and making an account transfer using an ATM. The paper will use case dependency narrative to describe each event. Finally, the paper will outline the ethical issues that may arise as a result of the use case exposition on the usage of the ATM systems.
Use Case Specification for ATM Cash Withdrawals
According to Bittner and Spence (2002), the typical use case for this kind of event will involve the specifications of the pre-conditions and the events flow and any alternative flows that may be present. Typically, when withdrawing, the customer gets the instructions from the transaction menu. For there to be a transaction of any manner, the customer is required to own a card relating to the bank that he or she is seeking the services from. The network connection of the specified bank system is supposed to be active at the time of the transaction. The ATM system is supposed to be holding a given amount of cash that customers can dispense anytime, and finally the withdrawal of cash option should be readily available in the service menu.
Flow of Events
The first stage of withdrawing the cash is inserting the card. The use case commences immediately the customer in real or acting inserts the bankcard he or she owns in the ATM. In this stage, the ATM tracks down any errors that may occur, and connects them to the bank system through the session identifier. The next stage is reading of the card. The ATM system acquires the information related to the bank account that is available on the card. The third stage involves authentication of the customer. The system performs a sub flow authenticate customer. This is done to ensure authentication of the individual using the bankcard in the machine. The fourth step is selecting the withdrawal option (Bittner, Spence, 2002).
After authentication of the customer, a variety of service options are displayed by the system. The customer selects the withdrawal cash option. The next step is selecting the amount. The system displays a list of the withdrawal amounts that have been standardized. There is also an option for withdrawing other amount other than the standard one; it will also ask the user whether he/she wants to obtain a receipt for the transaction or not. The customer inputs the amount to be withdrawn and confirms withdrawal. Confirmation involves performing sub flow asses of funds on hand or conducting of withdrawal. The system ejects the bankcard form the machine. The customer retrieves the card form the machine. The machine dispenses cash of the amount requested by the customer and records the transaction. The use case terminates (Bittner, Spence, 2002).
These emerge whenever a customer is been authenticated or is handling a receipt or card, or the system stops functioning all of a sudden. Instances occur that the system jams a card in the card reader. In such an instance, the machine attempts emergency card ejection or emergency confiscation. In the case of emergency card ejection, the system informs the customer of the faultiness of the card, and that he or she should get a replacement of the same from any of their banks. The use case then ends. In the withdrawal selection step, the system prompts the customer whether to have a receipt printed to confirm the transaction. The customer indicates whether to retrieve a receipt or not. The use case resumes from the interruption point. If the card is not ejected or retrieved, it is termed as jammed. The system captures the customer's video image. The system creates a log event entry to record jamming of the card in the reader. The log entry is sent to the system in the bank and administrator. The system informs the customer about the situation, and the course of action to take, contacting the service organization (Bittner, Spence, 2002).
Deposit Transaction Use Case
The precondition in this transaction is that the customer should own a bankcard that is valid (Smith, 2011). The network connection between the bank and the ATM should be faultless. In this transaction, the customer inserts the card to the machine. He or she then chooses the option of depositing cash from the range of options displayed by the machine after authentication, or verification of the pin password. The customer is asked to specify, from the list of accounts displayed, the type of the account he or she wishes to deposit the money to. The customer types in the amount to deposit and specifies the currency to use. The transaction is referred to the bank to authorize the ATM to receive a deposit from that bankcard to the account specified. The system approves the transaction and receives the envelope containing cash or check from the customer. The receipt is then issued. The retrieval of the envelope causes a second message to be sent to the bank authorizing it to credit account with the amount stipulated by the customer. The verification is done manually by the bank operator (Smith, 2011).
The transaction is cancelled if the customer does not insert the envelope containing cash within the advised time period. The customer repeats the process again. The customer can cancel the transaction by invoking the cancel key any time before inserting the envelope. The transaction is automatically cancelled, if the customer inputs the wrong amount of cash in the envelope against the amount entered in the menu. The customer is prompted to repeat the transaction or to visit the bank for the direct depositing (Smith, 2011).
Accounts Transfer Use Case
As a precondition to this transfer, the customer is supposed to own a bankcard. The network connections between the bank and the ATM should be faultless (Smith 2011). The customer inputs the card into the ATM. The system requests for authentication of the customer. The customer inputs the pin. The system displays a range of menus to choose. The customer chooses the cash transfer option. The system displays a list of accounts to transfer the cash to. The customer is required to choose the account, which he/she wants to transfer the cash to. The system displays the accounts the transfer is to be made to. The customer chooses the account of his or her choice. The customer inputs the amount to be transferred, and the currency to be used. The transaction is approved by the bank. The receipt is printed detailing the amount transferred and the balance in the account (Smith, 2011).
The customer can cancel the transfer transaction any time by pressing the key labeled "Cancel" before imputing the amount to be transferred. In a scenario, where the bank has rejected the transaction for instance error, the system rejects the transfer, because the cash in the transfer account was insufficient. In case there is any other reason for rejecting the transaction, the system informs the customer of rejection and advises them on contacting their banks for further details. The system records the transaction log entry. This contains the reason causing the rejection of the transaction. The use case resumes basic flow at select cash transfer (Smith, 2011).
Ethical Issues Exposed
Confidentiality is a principal ethical issue that is underrated and misused, whenever it comes to exposing the usage of ATM Machines. Use case improves the usage of the ATM, since it has exposed the significant functionalities of the machine. Use case advises the customer on the actions to take and the time period for them. In other words, it creates awareness and confidence in the usage of the machine. The use case has rather made the transactions of the ATM transparent, and makes information regarding any difficulty observed available to people. Through making the transactions transparent, any ideas of an inside job theft are eliminated. The technology used has rather been exposed; hence, it would be easier for people with malicious intentions to cause damage to the users of the machines (Bittner, Spence, 2002).
Use case represents the event that takes place in a given system. This paper has analyzed the events that take place when a bank customer visits an ATM to withdraw, deposit, or transfer cash. The paper has also outlined the various alternatives of the basic flow of events that may occur due to the various reasons. For instance, in the cash withdrawals, the card may be rejected or jammed, or the amount in the account may not be sufficient for withdrawal. The system may also be faulting in the network connections. Finally, the paper has outlined a major ethical issue that the users are exposed to by the use case regarding the usage of the ATM for making bank transactions.