Climate Change and Sustainable Development
According to united nation climate change is defined as “change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity. The change alters the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time period”. On the other hand, sustainable development is the growth that meets the needs of the current without compromising the need for the future generations. These two aspects are closely related to each other because if you compromise the climate you will definitely affect the development.
The Role of Government in Directing and Influencing Sustainable Development
The first role is to establish a long-term objective that works toward sustainable development. According to Cohen, goal formulation should be the primary focus and also working toward its attainment. In addition, various evaluations should be carried to enhance the project, by changing tact on the ways in which it is run. The goal to be attained should be split into sections of shorter terms goals which can be accessed for the completion of the long-term goals.
Secondly is the role of government to carry the extension of co-governance networks that draw together organizations from across various society divisions. The government can directly provide a favorable environment for such initiative and therefore, this can be through the provision of a stable political environment and also giving initiatives for such networks to flourish. The government should also have a responsibility to monitor their results to ensure sufficient use of resources and for accomplishment of the most important goal.
Thirdly, it is also important for the government to promote emergence of vibrant public opinion to create room for continuous discussion of social choices and critical reflection on the growth path and policy approaches. Hence, this will promote consolidation of new ideas and practices that will strengthen public views on sustainability and also renew political support for the process of reform. The government should dedicate time for public feedback including consultation of disabled persons and avoid over domination of one particular group of individuals.
The government has a responsibility to encourage the growth of ecological citizenship. Citizens have to embrace challenges and act sensibly and positively towards the environment. Every individual should think critically about social and environmental interactions and practically engage with collective problems and assumes responsibility for conduct in private and public life. The government can reinforce the societal foundation for the alteration toward sustainable development.
The government should also ensure development of various institutions to track social and environmental trends. Such institutions should independent and free from political and administrative interference. The institutions are expected to evaluate and assess existing practices, the efficiency of policy initiative and also audit performance. Such kind of knowledge is crucial to government, other organizations and citizens to ensure sustainable development.
Another vital role is exploiting relations among actors to gain understanding about interest’s perspectives, and capacities and to discover about the character of societal and environmental linkages, as well as the opportunities for transformation. Cohen asserts that this is done by initiating action, gauging other party’s reaction and assessing societal impacts, that it is possible to gain the understanding necessary to define a way for more significant reforms toward sustainable development.
Most importantly, the government has a role in enabling factors within the political, legal and administrative spheres and broadly in the society that tend to promote a sustainable orientation towards development. Appropriate statutory laws and rules that govern the society with a proper political climate will ensure sustainable development for the welfare of all.
Measuring society progress toward sustainability by developing and maintaining a system of generally accepted sustainability metrics is also a role of the government. Without these measures, it will be difficult to take actions by management for making things better. For example it the responsibility of the government to ensure that development initiatives like companies are run accordingly through a published uniform accounting and audit of the company financial statement to ensure free and fair positions of the businesses.
Transfer of technology especially to developing world is also the role of the government in ensuring transition to a sustainable economy. A more sustainable, renewable resource-based economy should be the focus. The aim is to provide initiatives to use the new technologies to produce final goods and services that have vast revenues in the international market. The government should encourage foreign investors to come and invest in the local market; this will improve the standards of living and the transfer of skills locally which can be diffused to the other members of the society. In the long run this initiative by the government will ensure sustainable development.
Lastly is the government role to ensure a sophisticated, agile sustainability policy. The development role cannot be left on the hand of the free market forces and the private sector but also government roles and action are of importance. The government needs to play a more strategic and future oriented role to bring about a transition to a renewable resources-based economy. It should be able to work with the private sector and nongovernmental institutions to ensure that sustainable development is meet in all corners of the country.
Role of Non-Governmental Actors in Influencing Sustainability
Despite the growth efforts to influence the decision-making the process of the government, there has been coordination between different in their attempt to enhance sustainable development. These groups are known as Non-governmental organizations, and they have played the main role in addressing the global sustainability problems. The United Nations came up with seventeen sustainable development goals in their agenda for global environmental change. The non-governmental organizations produce information on the available natural resources, consequently, aiding the organizational officials in preparation, use and finishing of projects on environmental protection. Additionally, the UN encourages implementation of sustainable production and consumption programs taking into account the capabilities to bring development.
For instance, Norway mainly depends on natural resources for its economic growth therefore; the government together with the NGOs is obliged to hit environmental objectives. To curb pollution, Norway has been using quality guidelines to regulate environmental management. Norway has implemented international policies that aim at reducing atmospheric emissions. A report by IPCC asserts that there are various impacts of gas emission on sustainable development; as much as the industries contribute to economic growth, these emissions are harmful to the environment. The regulatory instruments have led to a reduction of sulphur dioxide and acid deposition. However, irrespective of these steps, the Norwegian government should implement more policies that will minimize air pollution due to the expansion of the transport sector. According to Sneddon and Norgaad, pollution increases as the NGOs and the government seek proper ways to enhance sustainable development. Consequently, the United Nation Conference on Environment and Development has tried to invoke sustainability through treaties that will aid in maintaining commitment to sustainability.
Over the past few years, NGOs in various countries have been enormously successful in highlighting differences in who tolerates environmental troubles and who gets the benefits of environmental investments. Additionally, NGOs recognize that for any country to achieve sustainable social and economic growth there has to be proper natural resource management. A recent report by Bell, adverse weather conditions have led to disease outbreaks such as Zika and others that result from mosquito bites. A clear example of an area that is experiencing unsustainable development is France (a developed state) which is affected by greenhouse emissions which cause excessive heat.
Another impact that the NGOs have on sustainable development is that they also take part considerably by researching and publishing documents on the environment and growth-related matters. Some examples of NGOs include the Carbon Trust found in U.K, Conservation International, Environmental Defense Fund, and the United Nations Environmental Program. These actors, help companies create climatic change strategies and conserve biodiversity. According to the United Nations Assembly, the essence of making public awareness and NGOs participation in ecological safety is recognized internationally. According to the U.N news, on 17 goals towards sustainable development, global emissions and sea levels have greatly increased. UNEP has come up with solar energy plant in Ghana, which will not only reduce carbon emissions but also create jobs for around 23000 individuals. NGOs such as Carbon Trust advise policy makers about the local wants and priorities. They often show the decision makers concerning the interests of the poor and the ecosystem as a whole since these decisions affect the climate. The United Nations play a significant role in offering training facilities and workshops to enlighten people on environment conservation.
In conclusion, sustainable development can only be achieved if the government together with the NGOs, work hand in hand. Designing authority structures that draw Non-Governmental Organizations into a worldwide level environmental policy making and execution continues to be an essential global confrontation. There is, therefore, need to improve the obtainable alliances with the NGOs by the community power the skill join of the NGOs to form and apply scalable and projects that can be repeated in the management of resources.