Environmentalism: Past, Present, and Future
Environmentalism is so broad and long-standing ideology that it permeates several centuries. In the early period of the Roman Empire, today's digital world, and the future world, the interaction of a human and nature went in the most diverse manner. Environmentalism is accompanied by a favorable results, as well as corrupt and hypocritical actions. However, one cannot deny the importance of this concept. Environmentalism stands by legitimate preservation of natural resources, control of environment pollution, the maintenance of animal diversity, etc. Environment has changed for centuries and determined the future of nature in the human world.
Environmentalism in the Past
In recent years, the theoretical provisions of environmentalism were provided within the studies of environmental determinism. It shapes the future form of environmentalism determining the ways of physical environment and the activities of societies and their state organization. In any ways, environmental issue has been always under the concern of a state. The approaches to environment held that terrain and climate largely determined psychology and activity of people. Empirical evidence and theoretical provisions challenged scientists, ordinary people, and authorities driving the development of environmentalism.
Early developments of environmental determinism in Ancient Rome referred to the completely determined intellectual and physical properties of entire societies. The scientists of that time suggested that the qualities of natural forces shaped the character and peculiarities of society. Attitude of Romanian people to the nature was more tangible and gentle because of the mythological layout of social order. The people believed that badly treated nature will reflect in the same way. Environmentalism obtained the features of idolization and deification of natural forces. The Romans regarded natural forces as an ally and an enemy in certain situations. Nevertheless, they protect the areas from the attacks of enemies. Environmentalism was in physical protection functions.
The ancient philosophers mentioned environmental movement in their works related to various natural powers. Environmental determinism was accompanied by associations with people. The color of skin and origin of individuals was compared with the ability of natural resources to reflect on their peculiarities and behavior. Thus, Romans were encouraged to scientifically attitude to the naturalness. They tried to find solutions to some geographical issues that turned to the development of social and economic theories, studies, and sciences. On the basis of environmental provisions and prior data about the surrounding nature, the Rome’ environmentalism was theoretically described in the ancient works. Enthusiastic attitude to human nature was evidence of that the Romans started to focus attention on the social image of the ideal human and its ideal intellectual and physical proportions. However, the movement for the protection of the environment was not in ancient Rome so sound as now, as the use of the soil, rivers, flora, and fauna was unlimited. It should be noted that access to the highest quality products has been only in the individual classes. Stratification of ancient society and its division was based on environmentalism vision. Craft and agriculture as the treatment of natural resources employed a lot of people, but they achieved different results depending on the attitude to the nature. Environmentalism of the ancient Rome period was noticed by the state regulation.
Human image reduces the priority of settling of environmental views. Waste of natural resources was at a much primitive level. No radical aggravating dangerous technologies were yet produced. It is Greece that implemented and pronounced exceptional human image in the environment. Examples of such a successful fitting of human image in the landscape were the complex of the Acropolis and the sculpture of Aphrodite of Milo. These sculptures show that the Romans only paved the way for their ancestral knowledge of nature.
However, along with the protection of their lands, the Greek community was dominantly guided by the political forces of society. So, environmentalism of ancient Rome rested in the views of speakers and thinkers who displayed the special human dominion over natural objects, i.e. lakes, rivers, fields and hills used at full capacity. The Romans developed the theory of the power of nature and its patronage, but an inquisitive human mind at that time turned the patterns of economic and social life into a consumer society. Environmentalism was poor in Ancient Rome, because its population did not know the deep ecological problems for a long time.
Environmentalism in the Present
Nowadays, environmentalism represents more shaped form of upholding the rights of nature. Current position of this concept turned to the provisions of land ethics, ecology, biodiversity, determined nature predominantly. Each direction serves for plant and animal preservation in its own way. Pollution became the urgent and dangerous problem that drove the views and studies of environmentalists forward the governmental incentives.
As the shaped practical phenomenon, environmentalism represents attempts of the world societies to balance between the human needs and natural system surrounding the human activity and being immediate object of this activity. All natural components relate to sustainability to certain degree, as they become very fragile and innocent to human invention and intensified economic occupation of all rivers, lands, and air. The outcomes of this balance are considered controversial issues. There are many different ways for various environmental concerns raised in all corporate, governmental, and business decisions. Nowadays, no companies, especially either international or manufacturing business, remain reluctant towards the needs of stakeholders. It is the step in the terms of environmental responsibility allowed to act only in accordance with strict global allowance and permissions approved by the world organizations and collaboration of countries.
The term of environmentalism connects with green incentives and appropriate movements. They are different social, scientific, and political actions initiated by various representatives of society, including organizations. This movement was formed as autonomous direction within enlarged social movement. It institutional nature is in compositional oppression including reduction and elimination of ecosystem consumption, waste of natural resources, waste dumping, air and soil pollution, failure of organic life, and implementation of anti-polythene movement. Other green incentives are related lines of group behavior. Due to these directions of green movements, environmentalism is categorized into the primary focuses, including environmental policy, science, justice, activism, and advocacy.
Another direction is the market orientation as current phenomenon responsive for modern economic approaches. There is a type of environmentalism that argues new responsible market, law, and property rights that provide best solutions and tools that preserve and sustain environment and health. Environmental stewardship that should be natural is behind this concept. Expulsion of the corporate and non-business polluters and natural aggressors are widely promoted through group and individual actions. Appropriate social incentives are supported and defended by conservatives and libertarians. Along with different political shadow of the environmental movement, world society can distinguish religion direction or incentive. Thus, evangelical environmentalism represents the focus of Evangelicals’ biblical mandates that refer to their religion visions of humanity responsible for the world creation that should be cared. Aside of its environmental convictions, this movement address climate changes and influence from theological aspects grounded in different scriptural evidences. Thus, human impacted negatively on climate and invoked severe consequences, especially for the poor as the most unsecured layer of the global population. Modern human actions oppose to the God’s mandate to care for the nature of the Eden Garden. Consequently, current activities of human beings turned to moral obligation to cover all the damages to the natural world and stop ruthless extermination of natural resources.
In the terms of environmentalism, environmental preservation represents widely expanded practice in the Western and Southern countries, especially including Australia, the U.S, Sweden, etc. They tend to set natural resources aside to prevent and eliminate their damage through the contact with human activity and economic interest. The most extremely fatal and threatening actions of human activity are hunting, logging, mining, and fishing. This type of occupation is the immediate and serious destruction of natural objects, including those that have not been updated. Therefore, people try to avoid such activities of general economic interest, in order to minimize the harm caused to the environment in which mankind lives. Among the tools that are believed to the controversial locally, there are laws and regulations that should be approved and enacted in order to preserve of natural resources.
Environmentalism in the Future
Future prospects for humanity are not as iridescent at a low level of actual compliance with environmental standards. Modern innovations directed to preserving the environment in a stable manner and solving many problems of pollution continues to evolve. Other areas of activity are intended to improve the economical use of resources and the conservation of scarce species of the world's natural resources.
In recent decades, almost all states and international organizations have tightened their national requirements to environmental regulations driven forward the priority of environmental safety in all human activities. Ensuring human activity with not only healthy but eco-friendly requirements and initiatives will be contributive factor influencing the lives of humans, animals, and other diverse natural objects. Strict regulations and obliged control are believed to be the efficient tools of properly developed environmentalism movements. Existence of diverse directions of this movement will the strong influencing power pressured from different sides on the business decisions. However, alternative sources of energy, waste processing, and treatment plants should be the starting physical efforts changed the eliminated industries that are vitally important for all national economies.
Future of the environmental cleaning is for restoring natural system, restoring ecosystems in secure regime, minimization of human intervention, transformation of all manufacturing processes, planting green spaces, etc. Many people suggest that the actions getting after coming. This concept means that intensive ruthless and wasteful destruction of natural resources will be displayed on the suffering humanity from their own actions. This law of boomerang can be felt in current environment. However, scientists and observers believe that the tightening and the development of new activities concerning the protection of the environment will help a little to restore the environment in the world. Modern companies regardless of size are starting to gain the attention due to modern green initiatives and the products made by eco-friendly material, or on the basis of energy-saving technologies. In addition, advances in a variety of industries will address the economic use of resource potential of the planet and advocacy reducing harmful chemicals indecomposable.
To sum up, the concept of environmentalism has passed through several stages of development. Environmental protection has an important perspective and advancing value to humanity. Suggestions about the forces of nature and their effect on human character and behavior were the primary provisions of environmentalism in ancient Rome period. However, the growing importance of the human factor and shifting priority that came out ahead of human needs has eclipsed the importance of preserving the natural environment, but has developed and actualized promotion of environmentalism. The future of this trend will be for new progressive technologies preserving the natural environment.