Individuals often acquire new knowledge while being involved into new experience. While practicing, they acquire new skills and shape new concept that can later turn into frameworks and theories. In such a way it is possible to acquire new understanding of the world and proceed with formal thinking. Apparently, this is the logic of proportional reasoning. This concept can be employed in learning and practicing. There are many examples that can illustrate how proportional reasoning could be applied in practice. Let us consider the example. One of the most famous examples of proportional thinking refers to a water triangle. There are certain measurements on the left and right sides of a triangle that equal 10 in total. Students can see 4 measurement units on the left side and 6 measurement units on the right side. However, when the right sides moves to 8 units, it might have been logical that the left side should show 2 units, which is in accordance with proportional logic. Some can approach to this conclusion differently. On the one hand, if 2 units have been added to one side, they should be deducted to another side. On the other hand, some students are guided by the principle that if two units are added to six units, it should be eight. Due to the fact that 10 units are presented in total, then it is logical that 2 units must be left for the right side. However, this equation differs and the rights side equals 3 units, which leads to a cognitive dissonance among students. The example shows that students take advantage of proportional thinking which turns practical results into formal assumption. However, this formal reasoning breaks when mathematical principles are introduced, which explain the phenomenon. Many students employ deduction logic which explain some of the false assumptions.


This is one of the examples when proportional reasoning does not work, but there are multiple examples when it can work effectively. For instance, it is possible to define the unknown figure when the total amount is known. So, let us imagine the situation. Tom is 6 years old and Jim is 8 years old. How old will Tom will be if the next year Tom is 8 years old? Guided by logic, the majority of student might answer that Tom should be 10 year old, which is not correct answer because there are many other factors beyond this proportion. Specifically there are many unknown facts that prevent students from thinking more accurately. So, what makes us think that this is a logical and correct answer? In this particular situation, individuals are often guided by additive relations, which imply that if Tom is 8 years than Jim is always 2 years older. Such a situation is based on the fact that Jim must be 2 years older and there is no an alternative. However, some might forget that the assumption that Tom is 6 years old and Jim is 8 years old does not meant that they have birth days on similar days, which can also mean that Tom can become a year older in a day. Hence, thinking over all possible alternatives is the way to make logical assumptions, which can allow humans prevent from making false assumptions. 

There are many other examples of how a human thinking might work. Apart from the logic of deduction, there is also a conditional introduction according to which the hypothetical assumption has right to existence in case the consequence is inevitable.  This argument can be based on the simple proposition that A is true and it can be B and B can be C. As a result, A is similar to C. Such an argument can be based on a more understandable example. If it is cloudy outside, there is a higher probability of rain and, therefore, you should take umbrella with you. In other words, if it is cloudy outside, it is necessary to take umbrella with you. Such a scheme can also be associated with indirect proof. There are many other interesting and more sophisticated examples, which can be framed within this assumption.  However, there are many problems about the initial assumption, which is considered as true initially. However, in case the initial assumption is not true that all subsequent logical deduction lose their sense. Proofing from the contrary, one might say that murder is not homicide. Let us explain this assumption. Murder is a killing and it is morally unaccepted in society. However, what is murder is the only way out for a person to survive. Therefore, killing could be presented as an act of self-defense, which is not wrong. Therefore, not all killings could be considered wrong and, therefore, not all homicides could be regarded as murders. This is probably the major aspects of conditional proof. Judging from the sequence of assumption, there could be many contexts and inferences, which make people lead to separate assumption. 

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Conditional proof is a sort of a challenging for a person who is interested in subsequent actions, which could be logical. For instance, several conditions can lead to the final consequence. For example, the sentence We will go to the cinema it will rain depends largely on personal’s preferences of an individual. Why do not they go to the basketball match or somewhere else? It means that this is the only place they like going when it rains, which is another assumption. There could be many logical deductions and cognitive rules, which make people develop hypotheses and unexpected decisions.  

With regard to the above, one should agree that conclusions and assumption depend largely on context, subjective thinking, and personal preferences, which could be supported with the power of persuasion. The latter is possible to achieve through rhetoric tool. Indeed, rhetoric is also based on logical deductions, proportional thinking, and conditional proofs. There are also many other approaches and factors that affect persuasive speech, such as personal experience, environment, and knowledge background. All these factors play an important role in explaining various notions.  

Examples of rhetoric devices could be diverse and can be employed in various spheres of life. Sometimes, speakers resort to the use of allegorical representations and metaphoric comparisons. The use of stereotypical assumption is also peculiar for rhetoric. For instance, there is a common assumption that blond-haired women are not intelligence because it is based on the general opinion accepted in society. In fact, such an opinion has been shaped on separate example that was used to create the theory.  However, this assumption does not have right to existence because blond-haired women are not always stupid and there are no supported proofs of this. However, the previous observation still imposes certain conclusions which are mistakenly used by the majority of people. 

Sometimes, people support their conclusions with logics that is associated with the accepted reasoning and accepted notions, which are taken for granted by society. There are many evident things which could be undermined because of the various contexts in which they are used. Sometimes, people take advantage of the emotional nature of human being to persuade them of certain issues. For instance, while discussing the concept of racial discrimination, many speakers can provide examples of genocide and unequal treatment to make people feel frustrated or excited, or to get them angry. In such a way, the speaker allows the audience to lose control and follow his false subsequent logical deductions which might be based on a lie. 

The presence of ethos is among the most persuasive tools because the speaker might resort to figures, illustrations, and schemes, which make the audience more engaged. The task of the narrator is to capture the audience’s attention and make them truth in the conclusions they make. As you might notice that some of the persuasive speech is done by political leaders who influence the social consciousness and affect their actions and perceptions. By employing these perceptions, people start thinking under the pressure of the political events, without realizing that all the thoughts and assumptions are controlled by higher authorities. For instance, one should remember Lincoln’s speech in which there are a great number of metaphors that enhance the impression and exaggerate the genuine facts. Indeed, distorting the objective information and interpreting it in different way allow political leaders to control large group of people who are not even aware of the manipulation. 

As it can be viewed, there are many methods and means of understanding human reasons, which could be premised both on logical and subjective assumptions. There are accurate concludes made that propos several logical variants and are premised on pure mathematics. However, there are many other peculiarities of human thinking which create difficulties for people to be affected by political manipulation, lack of awareness, and objectivity. One way or another, it is possible to make the conclusion that objective evaluation is the key to understanding the truth which could not have several interpretations. It is absolute. However, there proportional logic and logical reasoning provides a new understanding and perception of facts based on the assumptions which does not need any proof.

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