The Interdependence Of The State And Nation Essay
The Interdependence of the State and Nation: The Impact of the Cpc’s Propaganda on the Pcyche of the Chinese
Acknowledging that humans are capable to achieve the top of their development only inside the society, one should understand that the interaction between an individual and his/her community is a bilateral process. Therefore, it is appropriate to state that all its participants are mutually interdependent. Given the fact, it is not surprising that this co-dependence tends to affect all social movements by shaping the national identity of every particular citizen. In this standpoint, persons’ national identity is a critical component of their psyche. Specifically, this term is defined as “a mutual relation in that it connotes both a persistent sameness within oneself (selfsameness) and a persistent sharing of some kind of essential character with others”. This peculiarity facilitates the imposition and formation of certain ideologies. Assessing the significance of the cultural attitudes, it is necessary to comprehend that, as a rule, they have both ambiguous nature and impact. For instance, CPC’s propaganda of the national humiliation makes a significant influence on the minds of Chinese people. This propaganda is characterized with a strong unifying meaning; consequently, it generates the aspiration to acquire a world-wide acceptance, which is an important factor that encourages the further evolving and global integration of the Chinese. The former Chinese leader, Mao Zedong, claimed “use the past to serve the present”2. As the history displays, this approach can be rather efficient. For example, the CPC successfully utilized the former international relations of the state in order to construct the notion of strong national identity of its citizens that live both inside and outside China’s borders. Today’s national identity of the Chinese is characterized with vividly manifested patriotism and nationalism. In their turn, these notions presume that the citizens’ pride in their motherland is combined with some wary respectively foreign goods and policies. Besides, it is characterized with the desire to protect, develop and maintain the uniqueness of national traditions, cultural attitudes and attributes. On the other hand, understanding the importance of global integration both Chinese state and nation display positive tendencies towards global cooperation. Assessing this phenomenon from both perspectives, it is possible to state that the notion of global humiliation has positive impact on the country’s development.
First and foremost, the notion of national humiliation engages the Chinese to search for specific cultural identity. Undoubtedly, this tendency is not surprising because being determined to take the worthy niche in the world, a state is supposed to accentuate its cultural identity and maintain the tendency for its strengthening among the citizens. Fortunately for the Chinese, their cultural heritage is tremendous and rather interesting for the entire humanity. This peculiarity facilitates the global penetration, which is used as a means to erase overwhelming idea of the national humiliation. Consider the case, contemporary people are aware about China’s long history that goes back up to 4-5 thousand years ago3. Besides, Chinese language is rightfully considered to be unique. In addition, this country is associated with “the impressive number of inventions in areas such as medicine, weaponry, shipbuilding, porcelain”4. Furthermore, its cultural identity is globally known for the implementation of the philosophical approaches (the Chinese thought) in daily life. Taking into account the above-mentioned national features that distinguish this country from the other states, it is possible to deduce that the accentuation of the elements of cultural identity is a decent unifying factor. In this way the CPC makes a relevant step on the way to dispelling the sense of national indignity.
Another essential outcome is that Chinese national identity is known to beget the revision of own strategic culture. First of all, it is necessary to mention that this cultural aspect includes “causal axioms, languages, analogies, metaphors”5. It is presumed that the government’s policy is constructed in a way whereas through the above-mentioned notions the state displays its strategic culture. The research “the interaction between China and international society”6 reveals that, today, China redefines its international strategy from conflictual to more cooperative strategic culture. In other words, it means that the attributes of the Chinese strategic culture are being changed with the purpose to align and compliment the global social and cultural tendencies. Without doubt, this approach should not mean the loss of own national identity. On the contrary, it assumes that one’s national identity can and must be naturally interwoven into global trends by this making a significant input into global culture. Fortunately for the Chinese, they apprehend the importance of developing and maintenance of this international policy. Given the circumstances, the idea of being victimized becomes irrelevant; however, it is understandable that it was one of the decisive factors that triggered the desire for changes on both state and person’s levels.
In addition, today’s international diplomacy of China is being affected with the idea of national humiliation. Naturally, the Chinese’s psyche attempts to eliminate the negative association created in a result of the former years of international maltreatment. Thus, “citizens’ values and public opinions are conveyed to state leaders through the media and other information channels, both directly and indirectly influencing decisions on foreign policy”7. This example displays the bilateral relationship between Chinese national identity and every particular individual who carries and shapes this set of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, it points to the main Chinese’s ways of problem-solving that are based on the principles of the Confucianism. Specifically, modern Chinese diplomacy presumes “harmony, benevolence, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, honesty, loyalty, and filial piety”8. Besides, Chinese government’s policy is directed to emphasize the normality and even importance of the diversity. This approach helps citizens to develop the sense of self-worth in terms of national identity. People are convinced that differences should not be the reason of reproach or mistreatment. Instead, it is appropriate to value, respect and tolerate both domestic and international diversity. In other words, the given state propaganda provides an opportunity to adhere to the diplomatic approach by comprehending and remembering the previous experience.
Moreover, as was revealed above, people’s readiness for changes engaged Chinese government to redefine national identity. For example, the survey of “the interaction between China and international society”9 displays that, today, this state is a status quo country. In other words, it is characterized with friendly, diplomatic approaches in the sphere of international relations. This insight implies that Chinese citizens want to achieve and maintain the international acceptance. The authors of this research accentuate that “any judgment of interests and formation of conception depends on a state’s cognition and orientation of its identity in the first place”10. Nowadays, it is well-seen that the Chinese comprehend the significance of this claim and do their outmost to revise their national identity. Given the fact, it is appropriate to assume that the CPC endeavored to form the chain of reasoning: victim implies threat, and threat presumes the need to become stronger and find relevant ways to survive. In this way, government’s propaganda is a unifying factor that triggers the national cognition of all citizens. Being encouraged to strive for changes, these individuals start to shape their cultural attitudes, which, in its turn, change their interpersonal relations creating the fundament for the state level changes in Chinese international policy. What is more, promoting the idea of China being a victim of national humiliation the CCP engages the citizens to be cautious regarding different means of international propaganda. For instance, it is a well-known fact that China comprises a decent client base, which every multinational corporation strives to target and conquer in spite of certain inhibiting factors. Typically, these negative factors are related to the peculiarities of the Chinese national identity and cultural attitudes. Therefore, it is quite important to explore Chinese nationalism in terms of consumer’s attitudes. Apprehending the significance of this approach the Ogilvy Group China & Millward Brown ACSR China conducted a web research. The participants were 900 Chinese people in the age frames from 16 to 45. The results were quite predictable considering the policy of the CPC. In particular, most responders reported hostile attitude towards foreign companies, -- “Carrefour and CNN”11. Naturally, Chinese consumers claim to prefer domestic goods. Consider the case, in 2008 “84 per cent vowed to increase their consumption of domestic brands”12. Given the fact, it is appropriate to conclude that the government’s policy ensures the high interest of citizens in domestic goods, which is greatly beneficial for the prosperity of domestic economy. Simultaneously, this state is known as one of the biggest importers that supplies the entire world with food and light industry commodities. In this way, the notion of humiliation has a positive impact on the well-being of the entire nation.
Even stronger example is the premise “global brands remain foreign in the eyes of many Chinese”13. As it is known, attempting not to be accepted as ‘strangers’ the multinational corporations prefer to chose the marketing strategy that leads to the natural assimilation with the domestic brands. It means that global brands try to save their individuality, but simultaneously, understand the importance of shaping and aligning with the local public demands. Even though this approach is rather efficient in many countries world-wide, it is reported that the Chinese posses well-seen feelings of patriotism and nationalism. This attitude prevents the citizens from purchasing foreign goods even if they are partially assimilated with the cultural identity of this state. Thanks to the tremendous patriotism of the Chinese people domestic economy of China has better chances to develop and flourish.
Processing to present the ways in which the self-awareness of the Chinese was reshaped, it is relevant to point to the decisive economic changes that the state has endured for the last 20 years14. It is not surprising that the notion of humiliation assumes poor economic conditions. Acknowledging the necessity to change this situation, Chinese government engaged its citizens to orient their performance on the accomplishment of financial well-being and stability. Assessing the national identity of China from this perspective, one should understand the codependence between all objects and subjects of this process. Specifically, the state’s policy directed on the achievement of financial prosperity affects the minds of the Chinese. For instance, the government enhances the earning capacity of citizens by means of increasing their motivation to improve working skills and be successful. This approach gains the size of country’s priority. Naturally, this tendency is noticed world-wide and becomes to be accepted as an important feature of Chinese national identity. The change in how the world accepts this state makes a significant influence on the minds of the Chinese, in particular, as well as it impacts the general domestic and international prerogatives of this state. Summarizing this logical chain, it is necessary to accentuate the interdependence between the notion of humiliation, the government’s intention that precede this propaganda and the endeavor to reach financial well-being on both state and individual levels. Besides, it is also appropriate to underline the opposite impact that is made by the citizens’ aspiration to improve their life and improve national awareness.
Apart from that, an essential consequence of the comprehension of national humiliation is “rethinking of security interests”15. This outcome is the reaction on the potential threat because being victimized also means being endangered. Naturally, this rationale becomes a part of the Chinese’s psyche. Specifically, it is necessary to understand that the state’s policy, which is directed towards the economic flourishing, maintenance of a status quo and cooperative strategic culture, resonates with its security policy. Consider the case, modern China pays tremendous attention to its security interests. Notably is that there are several components of the national security, which are military, political and economic securities. The separate evaluation of each of these aspects provides a throughout comprehension of the Chinese multileveled and multidirectional security polity. The term “national security” is defined as “a sovereign state’s demand in an anarchical international environment for its own survival, with political security, military security and economic security at its core”16. Chinese political security presumes the creation of the country’s sovereignty in a way, whereas, neither government nor other state level authorities are endangered by any external factors. It implies that once the demands of political security are satisfied, the state is characterized with a legitimate status, which is generally recognized both inside and outside its borders. Speaking about military security, it comprises the apprehension that there is no outer immense for territorial integrity of certain state. As for the economic security, it is aimed to assure that the foreign negative factors cannot make any significant impact on the country’s economic development. In other words, it presumes that the economic interests of the state are not threatened from the outside. This meticulously elaborated and composed national security points to the Chinese state’s prerogative. In this way, carrying the idea about being humiliated and victimized into the citizens’ minds provides the government of this country with tremendous possibilities to develop and strengthen different aspects of the entire Chinese community.
Estimating the impact of the CPC’s propaganda on the minds of Chinese people, it is appropriate to refer to the history of this state. In particular, one should seek for the answers in the period when the promotion of the national humiliation originated. It is naturally to assume that the idea of national humiliation was developed from inside. People’s self-awareness was violated with the help of certain improper actions of the Chinese government in the middle of the last century. For instance, to solve the urbanization issue, a lot of well-educated city dwellers were sent to live into rural areas. This decision was explained as an endeavor to educate the peasants and provide them with the opportunities to master professional skills. In other words, the integration of different social groups was supposed to create equally well-educated, skilled, determined and well-motivated society. Nevertheless, in practice, the opposite tendency was developed. The young generation of well-educated individuals was lost because they deprived the opportunity for personal growth and development17. Consequently, they were not motivated to perform their outmost. As a result, this state’s policy inhibited the growth of China’s economy and culture strengthening the general distress of the entire community. The sense of serious domestic issues and government’s immaturity in problem-solving became a significant contributing factor that affected the Chinese’s national identity. Under such circumstances it was relatively easy to impose the idea of national humiliation, victimization and outer dangers.
Even though many scholars argue regarding the time frames of the period of China’s national humiliation, it is obviously that in the contemporary world this state is considered to be one of the most powerful. Undoubtedly, this apprehension shapes national identity and encourages the Chinese to revise both the today and their past. In addition, the future prospects are also need to be aligned with the country’s brand of the world leader. Consider the case, China alone with the USA and Japan have the biggest power and, thus, means of influence. At the same time, the status of the world leader also brings certain responsibilities. For instance, nowadays, China is expected to maintain and regulate the world-wide international relations with the purpose to guarantee peaceful co-existence of all nations18. In this way the idea of the victimization helps to strengthen the sense of patriotism of the Chinese. At the same time, it shapes the ways in which the state’s national identity is seen from foreign perspective. Today, most people know about China’s leadership, but do not know about national humiliation. As it is known, “state (the self) forms its identity in relation to how it evaluates the perception of other states (the other) and their actions”19. This relativism is logical and understandable since there can hardly be another relevant way to identify state’s identity without comparing it with the decisive characteristics and performance of other countries. Given the fact, the Chinese Communistic Party attempts to integrate into the global world, simultaneously, saving its individuality. The state’s policy regarding national victimization and humiliation helps to prevent the impact of foreign mass media on the minds of the Chinese. Therefore, these people remain loyal to their motherland carrying its cultural attitudes and traditions.
Assessing modern tendencies, it is appropriate to state that the contemporary world is witnessing serious positive changes, which, to a great extend, were triggered in a result of the CPC’s propaganda regarding national indignity. One of such crucial tendencies is state’s orientation on the protection of human’s right. Specifically, the Chinese government ensures equal statues for Chinese males and females. The identification of this positive trend becomes especially relevant while considering that many developing countries can not be recognized with the same policy of equality. Unlike those states, “the basic principles in China's legislative work concerning women are equal rights for men and women, protection of the special rights and interests of women, and the banning of any discrimination, maltreatment and persecution directed at women”20. As a result, Chinese women can enjoy the same rights and freedoms in all life fields. This tendency towards equity explicitly claims that this nation does its outmost to liberate from the label of national humiliation and victimization. Miraculously, exactly as with the other current prospects and tendencies of the Chinese, this trend acquires its power from the opposite notion of the negatively overwhelming self-awareness.
The similar tendency towards tolerance and acceptance is noticed in “the present conditions of the relation in China”21. As it is known, Buddhism is the main religion in this state. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is closely interwoven with the cultural identity of the Chinese people. Nevertheless, modern China is considered to be the state that welcomes “a great diversity of religious beliefs”22. Undoubtedly, this particularity makes a significant impact on the national identity. Firstly, the psyche of the Chinese comprises religious tolerance and, secondly, this fact is spread all over the world. It shapes national identity encouraging the future state’s policy to adhere to the openness and tolerance in order to avoid negative the return of China’s negative brand name.
The above-revealed theme of the interconnection between people’s psyche and government’s policy of China has another phenomenon that, currently, is being actively studied and assessed in order to define the mechanisms of its tremendous influence. Consider the case, in 1991 the Chinese Communist Party launched so-known Patriotic Education Campaign. The purpose of this campaign is to ensure ideological reeducation23. The volume of this curriculum reform is rather impressive. For instance, in the newly rewritten textbooks “a patriotic narrative replaced the old class-struggle narrative”24. Besides, “the official Maoist "victor narrative" was also superseded by a new "victimization narrative”25. A well-known contemporary researcher, Zheng Wang, assumes that such approach “blames the "West" for China's suffering”26. Meanwhile, patriotic education is a part of all school curriculums, in China such programs are known to achieve considerable success. For instance, it noticed that the Chinese who live and study aside China, in spite of being influenced by the mass media with a great diversity of ideologies, continue to display strong feelings of patriotism and nationalism. Naturally, it is hardly possible to state that the propaganda of the CPC is extremely beneficial. Nonetheless, the above-presented arguments point to the generally advantageous tendencies of China’s growth and development that was evoked and strengthened exactly by this national policy. Given the fact, one may deduce that a strong patriotic education of the contemporary Chinese is a great acquisition that was gained in a result of the government’s statement of the national humiliation.
Summarizing the above-mentioned, it is appropriate to state that the Chinese Communist Party emphasizes the idea of national humiliation by launching relevant educational reforms. This approach is implemented to enhance the sense of patriotism and nationalism of the Chinese. As a result, this state’s policy has a significant positive impact on the country’s growth and development. Specifically, being encouraged to liberate themselves from the idea of victimization and national humiliation, nowadays, Chinese people endeavor to construct unique cultural identity by implementing the attributes of national development into modern life. In addition, this state established cooperative strategic culture in terms of international relations. In particular, contemporary Chinese diplomacy is built on the philosophy of Confucianism. Moreover, attempting to achieve a productive world-wide cooperation this country is knows as a state with a status quo. Nevertheless, the Chinese are reported to prefer domestic goods. This peculiarity makes a significant positive impact on the domestic economy of this state. What is more, being stressed with the notion of national humiliation, --the belief that was set into the minds of Chinese people by the former inexperienced leaders, Chinese contemporaries welcome the composed system of state’s security. It is also appropriate to mention that Chinese leadership imposes on the state and its citizens certain burdens of the world leader. Among other positive tendencies that are being encouraged by the idea of national humiliation there can be distinguished social and legislative trends, such as the protection of women’s rights, religions tolerance and strong patriotic education. Besides, being codependent, Chinese state and nation are noticed to make a significant influence on one another. In particular, the government shaped the psyche of its citizens through the mass media and educational programs; meanwhile, every Chinese person by means of his/her interpersonal relations affects the decisions and strategies of the CPC.