Significance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNA
A human being is a main subject of study by various disciplines that incorporate scientific data in attempts to gain more knowledge regarding the processes that are involved in the circle of life and death. Scientists consider deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to be a key element that can help people understand the important aspects of growth, development, and further functioning of organisms. The current paper focuses on the recent discoveries in the field of genetics and discusses DNA structure and its components that are related to various processes, while the role of proteins and the process of protein synthesis are explained.
Research on DNA started in the 19th century. The importance of these studies could be defined in terms of genetic material and its connection to DNA. In the past, it was hard to identify the link between the DNA structure and the genetic code. It took decades to conclude that DNA was responsible for genetic characteristics. The correspondence of DNA to the genetic code lies in a linear sequence that can be seen in a protein and its amino acids. It should be noted that DNA determines the production of proteins and establishes characteristics of an organism mainly through the process of protein synthesis.
Thus, components of DNA function as a template for a cell to be replicated in a specific way throughout multiple generations. DNA transcribes encoded information from one cell to another (containing RNA molecules) and continues this process until the next stage known as a translation of the data from cell to proteins. During the process of protein synthesis, molecules convey amino acids to different cells and define their specific roles. As a result, an organism is designed to correspond to different environments. Thus, in areas where people are exposed to infrared light, protein synthesis ensures that certain proteins, for example, melanin, are produced to protect an individual. This phenomenon explains the fact that some people have dark skin, especially those who live near the equator, and others have lighter complexion. In this case, a gene carries information about the needed amount of melanin and transcribes it to RNA. Therefore, DNA is a foundation for the characteristics of the organism. However, it is important to understand that the interference in protein synthesis can lead to a disruption of cellular and bodily processes.
Interference in the process of protein synthesis can appear in several cases – evolutionary errors, viruses, and intentional manipulation with genes. The latter became possible only recently due to the complexity of such operations. Disruption affects biological processes by killing cells and preventing them from sending messages and creating proteins that are a normal part of synthesis. The consequences of this phenomenon may be severe, including cell deaths or other disruptions that can trigger neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, and others) and physical pathologies. Therefore, to avoid such consequences, scientists learn to alter elements that take part in protein synthesis. In some cases, inference is provided to improve genetic indicators and make an organism function more efficiently. For example, Klann and Sweatt study how gene manipulations during proteins synthesis can influence cognitive abilities and enhance long-term memory. Nevertheless, modern science lacks knowledge about DNA, and artificial alteration may have a negative impact on protein synthesis and result in the disruption of bodily and cellular series of actions. Fire tampered with the messenger RNA but the ribosome had failed to respond to interference and restrained from producing proteins. In the end cells died. This experiment stresses the importance of proteins, especially the enzymes, responsible for proper nutrition and life span.
Enzymes are chemical substances that are produced in organism, and they help chemical changes to emerge. Thus, enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalysts. Most importantly, they ensure a proper nutrition throughout life. One should state that these proteins are central to different processes, including nutrition. Nutrition is accountable for digesting food and applying it to fulfill the needs of the body, for example, growth and maintenance. It is worth mentioning that any organism constantly produces enzymes. This mechanism is imprinted in DNA as a significant nutrition factor. In effect, enzymes serve as agents of metabolism and help to turn food into energy that a human being and other living organism require in order to exist. Enzymes created by the organism create a balance with enzymes that are digested along with food. Scholars studying these proteins emphasize the fact that a human organism does not receive enzymes with the food that has been cooked since they are destroyed. For this reason, it is necessary to keep a proper diet. Thus, such known enzymes as Renin, Pepsin, Lipases, Catalases, and others play a significant role in the process of nutrition. Additionally, enzymes can make certain elements less toxic by, for example, breaking down the molecules of alcohol.
It may be concluded that modern science operates knowledge that helps to comprehend difficult processes that occur in the organism. Research on DNA and genetics is crucial as it explains the matter of heredity. Scientists have introduced and proved the idea, according to which there is a link between the DNA structure and genetic characteristics, and it may be followed using the example of protein synthesis. The process of protein synthesis ensures the ultimate expression of main characteristics of a living organism. Apart from this fact, there are cases when protein synthesis may be disrupted due to interference. Such actions have negative effects on cellular and bodily processes, including neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, and others) and physical pathologies of the body. It has been also discovered that the enzymes are proteins that play a significant role in nutrition. Therefore, the complicated nature of DNA is a serious matter for discussion and research since it enables people to understand the matters responsible for genetic inheritance. Presently, scientists try to alter DNA and manipulate the process of protein synthesis in order to improve human abilities and eliminate different disorders. Perhaps, these goals will be achieved in the nearest future.