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Feb 12, 2019 in Analysis

Methyl Parathion Essay

Characteristics of Organophosphates pesticides

Pesticides are among the main causes of cancer in today’s world. Organophosphates pesticides cause cancer in human beings (Hassan et al 2702). Pesticides have been designed to kill, but their mode of action is specified to specific species. It makes the pesticides extremely dangerous since they can kill any species. Pesticide kills pests and other organisms; this includes the human beings. According to WHO (world health organization), there are reports of around 3 million pesticides related cases annually and close 220,000 deaths mainly reported from the developing countries (World Health Organization). Pesticides application is never precise; therefore, there is always a high probability of unintended exposure where other untargeted organisms become inevitable. 

Harmful effects of organophosphates to human beings

Similarly, the exposure of pesticides to human beings mostly results in cancerous effects and a wide range of effects on neurological health including uncontrollable or altered general behavior and mood, loss of memory, coordination loss, reduction of speed in regards to stimuli response, reduction of motor skills and visual capacity. Exposure to pesticides is also associated with hormone disruption, cancer, as well as, problems in fetal and reproduction development. All the pesticide contains both the inert and active ingredients where the active ingredients are responsible for killing the targeted pests while the inactive ingredients are responsible for assisting the active ingredients in working more efficiently (Hemingway 96).  

Indeed, the organophosphate pesticide is known for its irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase that is extremely essential for nerve function of insects, animals, and human beings. It impairs this enzyme in various ways leading to its underlying potential in poisoning. The pesticide has a rapid degradation when exposed to air, soil, and sunlight through a process referred to as hydrolysis. This pesticide has exceptional levels of toxicity. It poses a high risk to people who might be exposed to extensive amounts of the pesticide. The main routes include dermal absorption, inhalation, and ingestion where pesticide is readily absorbed. 

To point out, methyl parathion is also known as neurotoxic insecticide, which helps in controlling pests on fiber crops, food and feed. The pesticide's toxicity originates from the inactivation of an enzyme called AChE (Acetylcholinesterase) in both the mammals and the insects. In order for a pesticide to yield the expected results, it usually requires activation of its metabolism to its oxon. The extended unhydrolyzed Ach action typically leads to overstimulation, which is then followed by disruption and exhaustion of the prevailing cholinergic pathways in the peripheral and central nervous system. Most of the organophosphate pesticides, including methyl parathion are liquid in nature. Therefore, the pesticide has varying vapor pressure in a given room temperature. The other factor is that, methyl parathion extremely dangerous in that, it is immiscible with water. It means that, once the pesticide enters a river, it can stay in its original form for a long time posing a danger to human and animals using the same river. The organophosphates combustible products are harmful to both the dermal contamination and inhalation (Fukuto 249). 

In other words, pesticides increase the risk of various types of cancer. People who are exposed to pesticides have a high danger of getting cancer particularly lymphomas and leukemia. High doses of pesticides to human beings can lead to cancerous effects in animals. Although the levels of these pesticides in foods are much lower, one cannot assume the fact that organophosphates are extremely harmful chemicals that can result in cancerous effects on human beings. Again, most people working in the farms are exposed to these pesticides. Fruits and vegetables carry along some pesticides, which increase the probability of cancerous effects on people eating them. Pesticides have significantly affected the prevailing food chain. The chemicals present in the pesticides infiltrate into the streams or groundwater, and to other vegetation. The same risk is evident in grazing animals since the pesticide that previously infiltrated into the underground water reaches the omnivorous animal and then to the carnivorous animals. It is obvious that, the animals present at the high placed on the food chain are at higher risk of getting cancer caused by the pesticides in comparison to those lower at the food chain. The prevalence of these toxins from the pesticides is greatly felt at the top than the bottom of the food chain. In regards to the aquatic foods, harmful chemical from the pesticides get access to agricultural wastewater or runoffs. Plankton and algae later take up the chemicals, which is then consumed by the smaller fish. The smaller fish are eaten by larger fish, which ends up being eaten by human beings. 

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The cancerous components that was formerly present in the pesticide ends up being consumed by the people increasing their chances of getting cancer (Reber 107). Traces of chemicals or mercury from fish could be extremely lethal once consumed by people. There is extremely high risk for people who distribute and produce pesticide, people living close to fields where pesticides are being used and the agricultural workers. The people who consume fish, vegetables, and fruits that have been treated using pesticide are highly susceptible to cancerous conditions. Studies have indicated that, the human body contains hundreds chemical most of which are chemicals found in pesticides. It is also shocking that, the prevalence of these chemicals in people is more than was the case fifty years ago. Pesticides are also known for causing lymphoma. This is a case of cancer affecting the white cells of the blood. There are two kinds of lymphoma disorders; non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin disease. Hodgkin disease is usually linked to pesticide carcinogen. The disease manifests itself once the blood cells start becoming malignant which subsequently produces other cells where mutation is evident. Although lymphoma is known to occur on most parts of the body, the tumors are evidenced by the lymphatic system. This includes the spleen, blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. 

The patients who are suffering from this disorder experience swelling around their lymph nodes located at the base of one's neck, weight loss, fatigue, and fever. Breast cancer is also associated with the organochlorine pesticide. It affects the endocrine system. It is absorbed through the foods eaten, the methyl parathion; mimic, moderate and alters the prevailing hormonal activities. It is referred to as the endocrine disruptors. It raises the quality and activity of the body resulting in the formation of tumors. The pesticides are also responsible for causing ovarian cancer where the malignant ovarian tumors which are also dependent on the hormonal activities. Prolonged usage of the foods sprayed with this pesticide, leads to cardiovascular damage, weight loss, muscle, and retina degeneration, it results in cancerous effects. The organophosphates are also related to eyes and skin disorders, dizziness, vomiting, abdominal disorder, and nausea. Cancer, dermatological conditions are also evident. Mainly, the chemical present in this pesticide usually affects the nervous system, which disrupts the enzymes responsible for regulating the neurotransmitters. 

In addition, sustainability dictates that all the things needed for human’s well-being and survival is dependant of the prevailing natural environment. Mass education on the correct utilization of Organophosphates pesticide can greatly help in the reduction of its harmful effects to the consumers. Farmers who use this pesticide in the right way are never affected by it. Sustainability maintains and creates conducive environment where nature and human beings has a harmonious coexistence. Cancerous effects from this pesticide affect those who do not follow the correct hygiene when handling foods that were previously sprayed with this pesticide. Therefore, this pesticide cannot cause cancer to anyone who is exposed to foods that were sprayed with organophosphate pesticides, but to those who overlook their hygiene in regards to the consumers and farmers who assume the prevailing safety measures when handling this pesticide in the field. Selecting the right season to spray foods with organophosphate also helps in preventing the spread of the pesticide’s harmful effects to the herbivorous animals and the aquatic life. Therefore, human negligence when handling foods sprayed with organophosphate pesticides or farmers using the pesticide are the main cause of deaths from this pesticide.     

 
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Therefore, the three main routes of methyl parathion in the water source is through the effluent or industrial waste, the seepage of toxic wastes that has been buried in the ground in a nearby water mass. The third mode through which the toxins enter water masses is once there is an imminent contamination of run-offs once the crops are being sprayed with methyl parathion. In regards to the static water, there are evidences of suspended particles where the prevailing bacteria assume a crucial role in the degradation. The process of degradation involves hydrolysis, as well as, oxidation to both di- or mono- substitutes for phosphoric acid. In order to protective the people from the prevailing dangers caused by methyl parathion pesticides, the government should enact laws in regards to the selling of these pesticides (Wiederpass 171). The people selling the pesticides should make it their priority to inspect the area to be sprayed with these pesticides in order to see whether there is water mass within the proximity of the farm since some farmers disregard this factor. The consumers should be advised on how to handle the fresh foods such as fruits and vegetables since these foods carry the pesticides remnants into people kitchens leading to various diseases such as cancer. 

In conclusion, cancer remains a problem in today’s world. People are using millions of shillings in a bid to get a cure for cancer. As such, the government should play the role of reducing the prevalence of cancer disorders through limiting the usage of organophosphates and other pesticides that causes cancer and other chronic diseases. The organophosphates pesticides are extremely dangerous to human life since the methyl parathion is immiscible in water. This means that, the pesticide has the capacity of staying on the water increasing its chances of causing disorders to both the animals and human beings. In this regards, the company manufacturing these pesticides take the responsibility of managing the lakes, rivers, and other water masses in a bid to eliminate the chemical originating from their pesticides before the water is domestically used. These companies should also take the initiative of funding people suffering from various disorders caused by these pesticides.

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