Travel And Tourism Section
Tourism in its modern picture is created with images of prestigious sea resorts, long worldwide travels, and actions of the commercial enterprises, such as Thomas Cook. This research was conducted with aim of analysis of the history and structure of tourism. Nowadays, people consider this sector as one of the fastest industries in terms of development. There is information stating tourism is creating more than fifteen percent of world production. In addition, the supply and demand sectors influence tourism in bad and good ways.
The History of the Sector
According to several researches made, three periods in the tourism history and travel exist. The periods are:
- before 1945
- between 1945 and 1980
- from 1980 till today (Blanke, Thea, 2013).
1.1. Key Historical Developments
In ancient times and to approximately end of the 16th, people who lived in agricultural communities rarely moved from their local communities. Starting from the industrial revolution, that transfers were at the low level. At the beginning of the 18th century, the city building was low and only one 'elite' class possessed the rest. Eventually, industrialization increased free time although it was aimed to lessen (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997)
The years of 1950th were prominent because the sector of tourism became inconsistent industrial part. Transport companies, tour operators, hotels, travel agents, everything was inclined to work separately. Hotels aimed only on selling the nights in the bed. The airlines and railroads were present in business in order to sell the tickets. The agents in the tourism were only specialized on selling at holidays. In each case, the agents and the airlines worked independently (Blanke, Thea, 2013).
Until the year of 1946, during the period that lasted between the Second and the First World War, the greater part of the international travel was for exclusive, rich societal groups.
The year of 1841 was bright because Thomas Cook was the first to enter the rest according to the permit, but actually by this period the railroad, independently offered excursion trips for transportation that they originally did not expect to bear. Transportation of goods and secondly providing faster transport for present travelers of a stagecoach in far not the cheapest price was the first task (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
b) From 1945 till 1980
If one looks at 1945, it was a year of growth and development in the industry. Some general explanations became obvious about changes that can be differentiated in the tourist industry. Since the middle 1950-ies, mainly in Great Britain, growth of different tour operators changed the nature of the sector from separate business activity to more difficult actions. For instance, hotels started considering clients’ desire to choose from the kinds of services instead of just buying the house. Thus, hotels initiated developing malls and later offering the secretarial centers to motivate guests to spend time in hotel complex. The companies’ carriers, especially in the airlines noticed the sale of transport services as an integral part much wider parameters. Airlines offer tourists insurance and the order of housing for travelers (Mowforth, Munt, 2008).
c) 1980 to Current Day
To the 1980th years, some airlines offered travel agencies various medical services, car rentals, services for holidays, etc. 1990 showed the development of the tourism, particularly in Europe, and executed developing of large companies. The American antimonopoly laws encouraged, if not forbade the growth of the integrated companies. American influence on operational activities differed from European one (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
Travel by air increases more quickly. However, it is the only historical part, and it increased considerably. Making about 18% of the full movement in the 1980th, the charter movement took great interest because different tour operators improved their own services.
Tourism business probably will make important development of world economy for the XXI centuries. Cultural trade and understanding of it are caused through tourism; it brings quieter and internationalized universal society. In addition to assistance in expansion and reconstruction of local economic systems and communities, development of tourism plays an important role in rise of educational levels. Ultimately, it promotes improvement of position of the enterprise directing on formation of the following generations that willing to develop tourism business (Choi, Ercan, 2006).
1.2 The Structure of Tourism Sector
In the structure of the sector, Leiper’s model is very popular. It is grouped into five sections:
- Leaving Tourists
- Region Creating Travelers
- Region of Transit Route
- The Region of Tourists’ Destination
- Travelers- Returnee
The first travel (human component) consists of the following three components geographically and organizationally concern transport, tourism, and the tourist industry that promotes services, products, and services for tourists. The past supports itself (Smith, 2014).
There are some modern influences:
- Change actions and motivations of the markets
- Expansion force of steady tourism
- Change of samples of tourist streams
- Demanded for the planned tourism expansion
- Cultural, social, and impacts of tourism on economy.
2. The Impact of International Agencies and National Governments
The government’s position is considered as the main part of the tourist industry. A state should recognize the fact that obligations of public sector have to capture problems, such as health, safety, the honest competition both consumer interest and development of transport infrastructure, such as ports, roads, and railroads. They and all other problems are of interest for local population. Their experience in entertainment rendering of services is mixed; environmental protection and preservation responsible for providing unique cultural heritage, important part of the European sights of the visitor (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
2.1. The Function of International Agencies and Government
The Ministry of tourism, the state agency for tourism will play a great role in terms of strategies that offer possibilities to consult and work with the scattered private sector, and prepare purpose of the marketing strategy (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
Because of the reviews of a role of the state in the WTO member countries of OECD and certain other countries, the Ministry of tourism functions can be received as a result as follows:
- Statistics, researches, and planning.
- Growth of tourism resources.
- Trade regulations.
- Help (Goeldner, Brent, 2006).
2.2. Economic and Local Policy Impact on the Travel Sector Success
At the local level, authorities have the role equal to the central government. In some sense, their role is more important and comprehensive. The first years of mass travel stimulated the development of a railway system and other infrastructure. Public sector’s intervention in tourism was exclusive at that level. There were no national organizations of tourism. (Goeldner, Brent, 2006). Growth of the largest resorts, for the first time in Great Britain in the largest coastal centers, promoted development of local administrations of tourism of duties of the destination of the owner (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
There are many international organizations, both government and non-governmental, which consider tourist’s desires. Consequently, governmental bodies reflected that the government will regulate the tourism intervention. The priority of tourism in developed countries tends to be low. The regulation of co-working is weak at the national level (Middleton, 2009). Besides, consultation with operational sectors and this industry is frequently inappropriate. The main branch organizations of sector inevitably represent in case of their own trade, sometimes as means of transport in a competitive situation. Thus, collective approach of tourism which is difficult for organizing and supporting, even when cooperation at the operational level effective (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
The Organization of World Tourism of the United Nations
This organization is an integrated institution within the UN. There is great amount of countries that are the members of it in the field of tourism. This organization can serve as the worldwide organization for the international policy and as a source of different knowledge.
Thus, it plays a considerable role in the advance of tourism and its development. It makes tourism available for every citizen, pays attention on developing countries and their resources. It devices the universal moral code for all the countries in order to provide equal conditions for various counties and reduce effects on environment (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997). The WTO tried consequently to develop its relations with non-governmental and commercial partners through the membership in branch that has to help ensuring practical guidance and as the basis for joint action (Edgell, 2008).
2.3. The Implications of Political Change in Different Countries
Tourism in Iran is prominent with significant amount of the visitors going to Iran for various sights, cultural wealth. It is bragging also with the various and beautiful landscape suitable for the range of actions. Tourism fell sharply during the Iran-Iraq war in 1980-ies, but revived later.
Starting from the Iranian revolution of 1979, the visitors of this country were businesspersons and pilgrims. There is no official data for distinguishing businesspersons and travelers. In spite of the intense relationships between the countries, the Iranian government continues providing increase in visitors and it expands the growth.
3. The Effects of Demand and Supply on the Sector
The majority of researches modeling demand for tourism precede the income from tourism as a dependent variable (Narayan, 2002). The companies and the governments in a package, tour operators, hotels, airlines and festive suppliers are interested in demand for its products because of tourists. Performance of many companies depends completely on a condition of the requirement of tourism, management and final crash quite often because of crash to meet a market demand.
3.1. Factors Affecting the Demand
As all of us experience changes round us, questions arise, as these events will mention demand for tourism. To call only some categories:
- Economy (for example, from blow to exchange rates),
- Policy (for example, expansion of the EU, taxation,)
- Crisis and threats (for example, terrorism, earthquakes)
- Demographic changes (for example, migration, education level)
- Technology (information, for example)
Besides, influence of radical changes in trust of consumers is to be considered. The festive requirement is stimulated by requirements, motives and expectations; its introduction depends on a certain economic situation and a freedom of movement around the world (Holden, 2007).
- External factors can influence the tourist requirement, mentioning ability of the movement (time, fitness, freedom, motivation, and money).
- Behavior of the customer is not a reaction for one factor, but on all number of influences of external factors. Besides, it occurs because of internal factors (such as motives, abilities, etc.). Finally, the changes influence in one of external factors is limited.
3.2. How Supply Changed
The majority of external factors, apparently, act pro for healthy development of the requirement of European tourism in the next years. Finally, no signs of the general boom are present (Hall, 2008).
The power is noticed as the modeled five independent components: sights, Transportation, Services, information and advance. The most important component is a sight (Hall, 2008). Delivery of rest and tourism is a difficult combination of natural conveniences, entertaining places, and access in business activity of the private sector that is under the influence of many factors that work to provide opportunities that meet the requirements of rest abroad. Measures the entertaining density of a place, which takes into account and the geographical size and the population, or social ability, is used as key explanatory variables in model of dependence of tourism (Marcouiller, 2004).
Tourism is the most quickly growing industry and in tourism of representation developing and in the developed countries as means to create new workplaces and to reduce unemployment in various regions (Cooper, 2005). Tourism history faces rough expansion. Currently, there are periods of large growth that were interrupted with the periods of stagnation (Lickorish, Jenkins, 1997).
The international tourism is a basis for globalization that influences the world in different aspects. It is aimed to stimulate increase in the international trade, development of prosecution, and economic growth. It makes stronger the communities of people in various professions, achieves the objectives of mutual international understanding. These advantages provide an important platform to construct other sectors.